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《为道日损——八大山人画语解读》摘要(中英文)
http://www.cuizimo.com  2010年9月29日 11:2  文章来源:自默文化网  点击:6820次

 

 

《为道日损——八大山人画语解读》摘要

 

三百年前的八大山人,靠自己心性的真善,揭示自然之大美,阐发艺术之本质;他传统而现代、极古而极新,是纯粹艺术的先行者,当之无愧中国画现代化的开山鼻祖,他以自己卓越的艺术实践,把中国画艺术推至一个空前的高度。

八大山人非同寻常的人生遭遇与文化素养的优越性之间,存在着不小的落差,是铸就他与众不同的生活理想与艺术个性的主要因由;也正是这种蕴涵的特殊性与复杂性,给认识八大的艺术带来丰富的趣味。

丑,是假、恶,是万类的相害与残暴,是不和谐、无秩序,这发生在自然界,也包含在社会现象之中。晚年的八大,当他彻底摆脱了遗民情结时,从小我走向大我,成为一位真正意义上的大画家。

靠被同情是成就不出大师来的。儒家“温柔敦厚”、“克己复礼”的诗教文艺观点与为人处世态度,鼓励着八大怨而不怒、哀而不伤,发乎情、止于礼,那是一种主动承担普遍和谐的责任心,是大仁大义大智大勇,是君子为维系社会安宁和正常秩序所做出的个人的大牺牲。他的画脱略陈言、戛戛独造,怪怪奇奇、不谐时流,但那是他“乐其日用之常”的天真性灵的自然流露,是不得中行的“狂者”的真容与善音,只因其超群拔俗而被误解而已,但那无论如何也不是冷酷无情、麻木不仁。

八大山人奇特的画语图式,与他非凡的人生际遇联系起来,成为一个错综复杂的审美对象;所以读解八大山人的作品,有其固有的难处,一旦戴上因人论艺的偏见的“眼镜”,则往往产生出种种误解来。八大的笔墨,经由一个“为道日损”的过程,臻至一个极高明的境界。他的笔墨语言,技进乎道、言简意赅、疏而不漏;他的“简”、“净”与“静”,不仅仅是禅旨理趣之表现,更是艺术品“高贵的单纯、静穆的伟大”、是激情之下沉静的心灵传达、是理性和诗情成功的融和体。这种伟大的品格,倘若被简单地视为荒寒、寂寞、冷僻、幽峭或孤迥之音,以为那样才是八大的文士风骨,那样才雅致、脱俗、超逸,则失之矣。八大自强不息,径直以心捐“道”,秉君子中庸思想,道德自觉,追求着亘古永存的自然大美,探索着尽善尽美的中和之境,实践着超凡入圣的人文理想。

 

关键词:八大山人  画语      中和

 

 

 

Seeking the Simplicity of Tao:

A study of Bada Shanren’s Painting Language

 

(Abstract)

 

 

Key words: BadaShanren  Painting Language  Tao  Simplicity  Harmony 

 

An artist of 300 years ago, Bada Shanren discloses the great beauty of the nature and illustrates the essence of art with the faithfulness and benevolence of his own heart and soul. Being traditional and modern, extremely classic and excessively novel, he is a pioneer of pure art and, doubtlessly, a founder of the modernization of Chinese painting. With his outstanding art practice, he has pushed the art of Chinese painting to an unprecedented high.

 

 

Primarily, Bada Shanren’s thoughts are grounded in Confucianism, take shape in Buddhism, and gets mature in Taoism. The beliefs of Confucianism dominate Bada’s understanding of existence from the deepest root; the methods of Taoism inspire Bada’s way of thinking and attitude to life, anytime and anywhere; the wisdom of Zen Buddhism influences the modes of Bada’s art in every detail.

 

The considerable conflict between Bada Shanren’s unusual sufferings in life and his superb quality in culture is the main reason behind his extraordinary life philosophy and artistic individuality. It was exactly because of the embedded peculiarity and complexity that make it fascinating to know about Bada’s art. If Bada has really experienced the process of from being outrage to calming down, probably we can detect such ups and downs in his paintings.

 

Ugliness not only means fakeness and malice, it is also the harm and brutality between all creatures -- disharmony and disorderliness. It takes place in the nature and exists in the society. In Bada’s late years, when he has eventually got rid of the so-called complex of loyalties, he has progressed from a small self to a grand self and become a master painter in a real sense. Without pity over his self and nostalgia of his family, a sense of social responsibility and a concern over the fate of human being have all over occupied Bada Shanren, which, on the other hand, have planted a kind of pain and frustration in him, no matter when as a mad or a hermit and hard to be rid of anyway. In the end, what frightening for Bada are no more the political turbulences of the society, but are the great mercy and loneliness. ``Nothing is predictable and the territory is in danger.’’ What you have is only art, a spiritual home to ease your mind and improve yourself.  ``The greatness of art lies in that it not only reflects the inner pains but also eases such pains. Great art often turns out to be great comfort to the soul, which might turn a cruel prison into a haven of freedom.’’

 

A master does not come from just being sympathized. The Confucianism principles such as ``being gentle and kind’’ and ``self-discipline for virtues’’, which are widely followed by Chinese literati in arts and culture and as their life philosophy, have inspired Bada to complain but not to rage, to feel sorry but not be hurt, to express his emotions but control that within rationality. That is a sense of responsibility for common harmony. That is a great kindness, justice, wisdom and bravery, a great self sacrifice for social stability and order. His paintings are novel, unique, strange and unconventional. However, they are just natural expressions of his innocent personality that ``enjoy the usual daily life’’ and are reflections of his true and benevolent nature as a ``madman’’. Although his art has often been misunderstood because of his prominence, it is absolutely not something merciless and senseless.

 

      The marrow of Chinese culture is its tradition, morality, virtue and order, which, in a word, is ``harmony’’. The so-called ``complex of royalties’’ is a special product of dynasty transformations and has a unique humanistic interest. The royalties’ nostalgia of the lost dynasty is not only a reflection of the faithfulness and loyalty advocated in Confucianism but above all a nostalgia of the human tradition of social order, an expectation and dream of social peace and stability. Confucius is called a ``saint’’ because of his efforts in defiance of the convention of the society and sticking to what seems impossible. Confucianism, especially mind-essence Confucianism, is extremely important in dealing with problems facing the human being. ``Find fortune in your self’’ and ``seek help from your self’’. Good luck to the mankind.

 

The paintings of Bada are lyrical, especially his paintings of fish and birds. Scared, sleepy, indifferent or absent-minded, the fish and birds seem as if they shed tears in their eyes. They are not groundless because they reflect the common state of being bored and angry, characteristic of royalties who have lost their dynasty. But for researchers of Bada, it is certainly not enough to be satisfied with the superficial things. Because of the great pains he has suffered, Bada has the deepest feelings and the greatest hopes. As a result, he has embedded all the ideals and hopes in his art works, which are also naturally tranquil and peaceful. The fish and birds and creatures in his paintings are so harmonious and intimate that they touch the eyes and hearts of viewers. This is probably a major reason.

 

The peculiar artistic language and pattern of Bada Shanren are connected with his unusual life experience, which has become a complicated subject of aesthetics. Although it is difficult to interpret the works of Bada Shanren, misunderstandings are often natural if the works are critiqued with prejudices. The techniques of Bada’s paintings have experienced a process of increasing simplification to reach an extremely high level. His technical language is of superb skills, of great simplicity, and of perfect conciseness. The ``simplicity’’, ``cleanness’’ and ``peacefulness’’, which are characteristic of his paintings, convey not only the meaning and interests of Zen Buddhism and rationality, but, above all, the ``noble simplicity and peaceful grandeur’’ of art works, expressions of the heart and soul that are both passionate and calm, and the successful harmony between rationality and poetry. It would be a pity if such a great quality were simply regarded as something remote, lonely, cold, and typical of Bada’s literati style that should be graceful, unconventional and individual. Bada is always self-motivated in his sought of ``Tao”, the everlasting natural beauty, and the perfect state of harmony. He is practicing the humanistic ideal to exceed convention towards the state of a saint.

 

 

 

 

(cuizimo/文)



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